Edward Hopper and the Elephant: A Conversation in Shelburne, VT

*Watch the video on Vermont’s Regional Educational Television Network (RETN) or on YouTube.*

Next Wednesday, March 26, I’ll be in Shelburne, Vermont, talking about my work with commentator Fran Stoddard and another Vermont author, Tracey Campbell Pearson.  This event is the second installment in a Community Conversation Series with Vermont Authors that’s co-sponsored by the Shelburne Museum, Shelburne Farms, the Pierson Library, and All Souls Interfaith Gathering (ASIG).  The focus of the conversation on March 26 is ART. 

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elephant-frontjacket-copyright-2013Tracey-Campbell-PearsonOf course I’ll be talking about my take on the work of Edward Hopper, and Tracey will be discussing her work as the writer and illustrator of a multitude of children’s books — the most recent of which will be “the Elephant in the Room”!

As for Fran, we expect her to exercise her usual artistry in finding the commonalities between two seemingly disparate authors, and between Edward Hopper in Vermont and Elephant’s Story.   Please join us for an engaging conversation, in ASIG’s beautiful facility overlooking Lake Champlain.

Vermont Authors
Community Conversation Series with Fran Stoddard
Wednesday, March 26
4:00 – 5:00 p.m.
ASIG / 291 Bostwick Farm Road / Shelburne, VT
ART, with authors Bonnie Tocher Clause and Tracey Campbell Pearson
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See the series poster, below — but note that the session on “NATURE” has been rescheduled to April 2.

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Mr. Hopper Goes to Washington, D.C., for a Residency in the Oval Office

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President Barak Obama looks at the Edward Hopper paintings now displayed in the Oval Office, on loan from the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York (Official White House Photo by Chuck Kennedy)

Edward Hopper is in the Oval Office…and isn’t it about time?  It’s surprising to me that it’s taken this long for the most iconic of American artists to appear on this particular national stage. The two Hopper oils, dating from the early to mid-1930s, are on loan to the White House from the Whitney Museum of American Art. You can read the complete press release from the Whitney Museum here.

Cobb’s Barns, South Truro and Burly Cobb’s House show structures owned by the Hoppers’  Cape Cod neighbor, Burleigh Cobb  (Jo’s spelling of the name was carried forward in the title assigned to the painting). These works came to the Whitney after the Hoppers’ deaths (Edward in 1967, and Jo less than a year later) in the bequest to the Museum of their entire artistic estates, including all of the works that remained in the Hoppers’ studios, unsold. But why Hopper never signed these two beautiful paintings — and apparently never released them to the Rehn Galleries for sale — remains a mystery, yet another puzzle from the enigmatic Mr. Hopper.

“Burly” Cobb’s house and farm buildings were a frequent subject for Hopper, appearing in at least one other oil and five watercolors painted between 1930 and 1937. The architectural geometry of this complex of rural structures had clear appeal for him. The farm’s proximity to his summer home also afforded opportunities for observation and plein air painting at various times of day and season, from early summer into the autumn, and this is reflected in the range in  quality and intensity of light, shadow, color, and tonality in the Cobb farm paintings.

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Edward Hopper. Burly Cobb’s House, South Truro. Oil, 1930-33. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.

Hopper’s interest in rural architecture was manifest during his initial forays into Vermont, in 1927, when he made five finished watercolors of barns and farm buildings. In 1937 and ’38, during the Hoppers’ stays on Wagon Wheels Farm in South Royalton, however, while Jo made rough pencil sketches of barns along the road leading to Tunbridge, Edward painted only one such structure — the Slaters’ sugar house.  This rustic building is observed from the same perspective as that of the Cobb farm paintings, looking down on the roof from the slope above.

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Edward Hopper, Vermont Sugar House, 1938. Watercolor on paper. Private collection.

With Vermont Sugar House, Hopper’s fascination with rural architecture seems to have run its course; as Jo might have put it, he had “exhausted” this subject. Hopper did one more watercolor of the Cobb house, in 1942, but by then — the year after Nighthawks — his focus had moved elsewhere.

Hopper for the Holidays

As I’m finishing my Christmas shopping, buying books, as I usually do, for friends and family, I want to remind you that Edward Hopper in Vermont (UPNE 2012) makes a great gift for anyone who loves Hopper — and/or  Vermont, New England, art history, Depression-era social history, watercolors, landscape painting, stories about art sales and collectors — or who simply enjoys a good read, a new take on this famous and popular American artist.

The Boston Globe dubbed my book “a fascinating inquiry into the taciturn Republican who gazed beyond the covered bridges and white church steeples to find the Vermont that spoke to him.”  Go to my Press and Reviews tab to read more.  There’s still just enough time to get Edward Hopper in Vermont in time for  Christmas.  It’s available from your favorite indie bookseller — by order if they don’t have it in stock — or from any of the online vendors.

Happy Holidays, and Happy New Year — and Happy Reading!

26 September 2012 – by ArtfixDaily Staff
Cover of "Edward Hopper in Vermont" by Bonnie Tocher Clause.
Cover of “Edward Hopper in Vermont” by Bonnie Tocher Clause.

Often overlooked in light of his contemplative urban scenes and bold architectural and Cape Cod views, the 1930s Vermont landscapes painted by American artist Edward Hopper represent a significant segment of his regional work, infused with a distinctive sense of place.

A new book by independent scholar Bonnie Tocher Clause delves deep into Hopper’s experience in the Green Mountain State with his wife, Jo, who was also an artist.

Clause tells the story of the Hoppers’ getaways to Vermont where they stayed on the Slater farm in South Royalton, enjoying farm life and painting en plein air.

The author’s research led her to find the sites depicted in Hopper’s Vermont paintings. “Edward Hopper in Vermont” also reveals two watercolors not previously recognized as Vermont scenes and details the development of Hopper’s singular style.

Some two dozen paintings and watercolors identified as Vermont scenes are shown in full color in this engaging look at Hopper’s artistic sojourns in his beloved White River Valley.

Edward Hopper in Vermont
by Bonnie Tocher Clause
University Press of New England

Oct. 2012 • 224 pp. 47 illus. (21 color)

Edward Hopper and The Week That Was: Zenith or Nadir?

The news from the New York auction houses this week has been fascinating for art-market watchers, and especially for anyone interested in American art and Edward Hopper.  First of all, there were four Hoppers for sale on subsequent days, two works at Sotheby’s on December 4, and two at Christie’s the following day. Edward Hopper, Steam Engine, The Ben FranklinThis is an unprecedented number of Hoppers to appear in the auction marketplace in any single week (and that’s not counting the artist’s charming boyhood drawing of a steam engine, on the block today at Freeman’s in Philadelphia—and just sold for $5,500).

 

As anyone still breathing knows by now, Hopper’s 1934 oil, East Wind Over Weehawken, garnered $40.5 million at Christie’s, a record price for Hopper. Of the two watercolors at Sotheby’s, Spindley Locusts (1936) sold for a comparatively paltry $305,000, and Church in Eastham (1948) took a pass, with bids not reaching the minimum estimate of $2 million.  And finally—as I reported here earlier this week—one of Hopper’s Vermont Watercolors, Sugar Maple, failed to sell at Christie’s, despite a low estimate of just $300,000.

This wide range of works, estimated prices, and results leaves us scratching our heads over who covets a particular work of art and why, and whether investment values have completely trumped aesthetic qualities and stewardship responsibilities (see my next paragraph) in today’s marketplace for fine art.  Everyone is wondering about the identity of the anonymous telephone bidder who paid such an astronomical price for Weehawken. Hopperphiles are hopeful that we’ll see a press release announcing that it has been acquired for a U.S. museum—perhaps, as has been rumored, by Alice Walton for the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. (And, if so, what will they think of this bleak New Jersey scene in Bentonville, Arkansas? I bet that a lot of those folks would have preferred Sugar Maple!)

The sale of East Wind Over Weehawken to benefit the acquisition fund of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts has raised eyebrows and a few outcries.  PAFA bought this Hopper in 1952; the museum already had another Hopper oil, Apartment Houses (1923), acquired in 1925. Apparently, however, someone at PAFA decided that one monumental Hopper is enough for Philadelphia, and thus Weehawken was packed up and sent off to Christie’s.  The proceeds of $40.5 million (or whatever the net is after commissions, etc.) will give a healthy boost to PAFA’s acquisition fund, but for many of us there’s a sour note to the sound of museums trading off beloved works from their permanent collections for contemporary works that haven’t yet passed the test of time.

The prevalence of this practice was further underscored for Hopper last week, as Church in Eastham, the watercolor that quietly and without fanfare appeared at Sotheby’s, belongs to the Whitney Museum of American Art!  Church in Eastham was among thousands of Edward Hopper’s works in all media that came to the museum in 1968 as part of the Josephine N. Hopper Bequest.  Sotheby’s online catalog noted that the watercolor was being “sold to benefit future acquisitions.” Since this piece did not sell, it was presumably returned to the Whitney. One has to wonder, however, whether and when this painting or others of the Whitney’s Hoppers will next appear on the deaccession-and-up-for-auction agenda.

In the course of researching and writing my book, I had the pleasure of connecting with a few collectors whose appreciation for their Hoppers went far beyond investment value. Witness Lila Harnett, who owned Sugar Maple for a time in the 1960s, describing her experience of living with this Hopper painting:  “[I]n my mind’s eye, I have many times sought peace and quiet under its cool branches” (Edward Hopper in Vermont, p. 148).  Likewise, I found a certain refuge in re-reading Lila’s words, as a respite from contemplating the ominous implications of museum deacessioning and sky-rocketing prices.

Lila and Joel Harnett bought their Hoppers as young marrieds, when the watercolors were still selling for three figures and it was possible to pay for them on the installment plan.  They enjoyed Sugar Maple and other works in their home, as did David and Peggy Steine, the original owners of another Hopper watercolor of Vermont, Rain on River (1938).  Writing in 1969, David Steine described living with art as “adding a new dimension to each of our lives, aesthetically, intellectually, and emotionally,” an experience that he and his wife shared with their children, now the stewards of the Steine collection. In this tradition, David Stein and his sister, Peggy Richter, shared Rain on River with Vermonters last summer, sending it from Nashville, Tennessee, on loan to the Middlebury College Museum of Art for the exhibit based on my book, Edward Hopper in Vermont.

As I recorded these stories and others from longtime Hopper owners, it seemed to me that art collection used to be a more personal enterprise in the past, but perhaps it was simply more transparent.  Regardless of such distinctions, let’s hope that Hopper collectors, whether persons or museums, private or public, continue to loan their works to exhibitions, allowing the less affluent among us to experience the thrill of seeing an original Edward Hopper.

This is what happened this past summer, when Hopper’s Vermont watercolors and drawings were shown in Middlebury—in Vermont, where Hopper painted them, for the first time—thanks to the loans from six museums and five private collectors who were willing to share their treasures for all of us to see. To my way of thinking, this is how the value of a work of art becomes truly exponential.

Edward Hopper, Sugar Maple (1938).  Christie's December 2013 221

At Auction:  $300,000 – $500,000

In an Exhibition:  Priceless!

Edward Hopper at Christie’s: Sale Results, 5 December 2013

The two paintings I wrote about in yesterday’s post came up for auction today in Christie’s American Art sale, and I’m watching the live sale, online.  Hopper’s East Wind Over Weehawken is the star of the sale (so far, at least); it was just sold for a hammer price of $36,000,000 ($36 million!) to a bidder on the phone. (The final price, to be announced, will be higher, as it will include the buyer’s premium.)  Hopper’s Vermont watercolor, Sugar Maple, was less popular among potential buyers. The bids reached $250,000 — less than
Sugar Maple at Christie's-page-001 the low estimate of $300,000 (which was probably the seller’s “reserve’ price) — and so the auctioneer declared a “pass,” i.e., Sugar Maple did not sell.  I feel a bit sad about this lovely little painting being rejected in its bid to find a new home, but it has company in being passed by. So far a George Bellows, a Rockwell Kent, and a Winslow Homer, among some beautiful works by other eminent artists, have not sold.

I do wonder what the future holds for Hopper’s Sugar Maple, whether the owners will take it home and hang it back up on the wall — and enjoy it! — or sell it privately, or consign it to Christie’s for a future sale.  This simple watercolor has had a series of owners since it left the galleries of Hopper’s dealer, Frank K. M. Rehn, in the 1950s, where it languished for some 13 years after Hopper painted it.  Sugar Maple was first assigned to the loan collection of the Museum of Modern Art, and for a reasonable fee you or I would have been able to borrow it — rather like a library book — to hang over the couch in the living room.  In 1955 it was purchased by William Zierler, a New York art dealer and collector, and since then it’s been sold and bought perhaps half a dozen times.

One owner, Lila Harnett, truly loved this painting, and in my book, Edward Hopper in Vermont, I quote what she wrote about her experience of owning Sugar Maple. If you’re curious, as I was, about who bought Hopper’s Vermont watercolors, and why, read my last chapter, “Where Are All the Children?” (the title reflects Jo Hopper’s referring to Edward’s paintings as the couple’s “children”). I included information and anecdotes about all the owners I was able to identify and trace — and in several cases, to speak with or communicate by email.

Sugar Maple, alas, has been rather like a child who is bounced from one foster family to another while failing to find a permanent home. I would gladly give it one…were the cost of adopting it not so high!

 

Hoppers for Your Christmas Wish List?

This week we have three chances* to buy an original Edward Hopper, including one of his rare watercolors of Vermont. On Thursday, 5 December, two Hopper paintings will be on the auction block in the American Art sale at Christie’sChristie's December 2013 225Sugar Maple, a watercolor that Hopper made during his 1938 stay on the Slaters’ farm in South Royalton, Vermont, and a major oil, an urban scene called East Wind Over Weehawken (1934) that has been deaccessioned by the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and is being “sold to support the acquisition endowment” (much to my consternation and that of some other Philadelphians!).

I’d seen both of these paintings “in person” before — Sugar Maple in last summer’s exhibition of Hopper’s Vermont works at the Middlebury College Museum of Art, and East Wind Over Weehawken at PAFA and in various Hopper retrospectives at the Whitney Museum of American Art.  But I couldn’t resist the unique opportunity to see both of these paintings at the same time, so yesterday I went to New York City with my friend Valerie for the pre-sale viewing at Christie’s in Rockefeller Center.

We wChristie's December 2013 221ere delighted to find Sugar Maple immediately, at the entrance to the first gallery. East Wind Over Weehawken was just beyond — occupying its own room, as befits a painting with an estimated price of  $22,000,000 – 28,000,000 (yes, this is indeed the correct number of zeros!).

Christie's December 2013 222
Christie’s clever arrangement allowed the simultaneous viewing of two extremes of Hopper’s work, two paintings that are dramatically different in every way — in subject, medium, size, and style. This placement also allowed the small (14 x 20 in.) and modest watercolor of Hopper’s Vermont to loom large in the foreground without being totally eclipsed by the monumental oil (34 x 50 in.) of Hopper’s New Jersey.

Christie's December 2013 250

I’ll be glued to Christie’s web site tomorrow, watching the live stream of the auction, curious to see what prices these two Hoppers fetch — and who buys them, if that’s revealed.  And if you, as I, can only dream about getting an original Hopper for Christmas, this is a reminder that my book, Edward Hopper in Vermont, includes color reproductions of Sugar Maple and 20 other paintings at an affordable price. It’s an excellent gift for yourself or anyone who loves Hopper and/or Vermont.

I’m also pleased to report that Christie’s cites Edward Hopper in Vermont in the catalog notes for Sugar Maple. You can read the lot notes online and view the entire e-catalog for Christie’s American Art sale by clicking here.

I splurged and bought the print catalog, and Valerie and I topped off our wonderful NYC day with a visit to The Frick Collection.  There we saw Vermeer’s luminous Girl With a Peal Earring and other incomparable works from the Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague.  What a fabulous art-filled day!

Thanksgiving 2013 085
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*Oops…those chances are going, going, gone! The third Hopper, Spindley Locusts (watercolor, 1936, Wellfleet, Massachusetts) was sold at Sotheby’s as I was writing this piece. The new owner paid $305,000 (hammer price plus buyer’s premium).

Hopper’s “Horse and Vermont Barn”: Where is it now?

Horse and Vermont Barn-page-001 One of Edward Hopper’s watercolors from 1927, Horse and Vermont Barn, alternatively titled Near the Connecticut River, Bellows Falls, Vermont, has gone missing – or, perhaps more accurately stated, I haven’t been able to locate it.  This painting was last seen in the late 1970s, when it was purchased by a private collector from the Kennedy Galleries in New York, and neither Kennedy’s Martha Fleischman nor any of the other dealers or museum personnel I spoke with during the course of writing my book have been able to tell me who the buyer was, or, more important, who owns it now.  The image that appears as plate 5 in my book, Edward Hopper in Vermont, was scanned from the Kennedy Galleries catalog for their 1979 exhibition, The Eyes of America: Art from 1792 to 1979.  The painting was also reproduced in black-and-white in the New Yorker magazine for May 7, 1979, advertising the exhibition and sale.
The New Yorker, May 07, 1979-page-001

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We do know the identity of the original owner of Horse and Vermont Barn, thanks to Jo Hopper’s notes in the Ledger Book. She recorded that this watercolor was purchased in 1960 by William H. Bender, Jr., from Hopper’s dealer, the Rehn Galleries, some 33 years after Hopper painted it.  At that point the Hoppers were apparently having some difficulty remembering exactly where, and when, Hopper made this watercolor, as evidenced by the changes and corrections in the record.  See my book for a transcription of the Ledger Book notes and more details about this transaction and the subsequent correspondence between William Bender and Edward Hopper.

Horse and Vermont Barn
is reproduced in the Catalogue Raisonné of Hopper’s works, and so it is possible that Gail Levin had contact with the owner in the 1980s during the course of her work at the Whitney Museum of American Art. The files in the Whitney archives relating to ownership are restricted, however, and thus I did not have access to this information, nor did I otherwise find any clues about the painting’s whereabouts since its sale from the Kennedy Galleries.

Last winter, when Hopper’s Vermont works were being gathered for the exhibition at the Middlebury College Museum of Art, the Whitney turned up an unexpected treasure:  Hopper’s preparatory drawing for Horse and Vermont Barn.  This fascinating drawing was identified among the thousands of items that the Whitney acquired through the Josephine N. Hopper Bequest.  Not previously published or exhibited, this preliminary study provides a clear record of Hopper’s process in developing the composition of the corresponding watercolor. The drawing shows two horses, as opposed to the single equine that Hopper placed as a dominant feature in the foreground of the painting. The long horizontal line of barns has been shortened and simplified in the watercolor, while still extending beyond the frame of the image, and the background profile of the hills has been modified so that the rooflines are silhouetted against the sky. The long vertical pole has been entirely eliminated.  You can view the drawing juxtaposed with the painting in my article, “Finding Edward Hopper’s Vermont,” in the Spring  2013 issue of Antiques & Fine Art Magazine.  Click here to see the article and reproductions online on the AFA web site.

In my next post I’ll write more about this drawing and the others that Hopper made in Vermont — the five that were in the Middlebury exhibition and two more that are in private hands. In the meantime, please keep your eyes peeled for Hopper’s Horse and Vermont Barn, and be sure to let me know if you find it!

If Edward Hopper Had Been in Australia…

Australia 2012 168Architect Louis Kahn wrote a wonderful tribute to Jørn Utzon, architect of  the Sydney Opera House: “The sun did not know how beautiful its light was, until it was reflected off this building.”

I photographed the plaque with Kahn’s words in the Sydney Opera House last spring, when we visited Australia and New Zealand. The quote was an unexpected reminder of Edward Hopper, who famously said that all he wanted to do was to “paint sunlight on the side of a house.”

This got me wondering:  If Hopper had ever gotten to Australia, what would he have painted?  I think that he would have liked the Sydney Opera House, not only for its reflective surfaces but also because of the sail-like roofs and its location — seemingly floating in Sydney Harbor. And he would have been able to get the magnificent Sydney Harbor Bridge in the same frame!

And Jo would have loved the koalas, the wallabies, and the kangaroos….

New Zealand 2013 069

Hopper’s White River Places: Autumn Version

This week I roamed along the White River with my camera, in my ongoing quest to match the perspective in Edward Hopper’s watercolors and drawings. My focus this time was Hopper’s Windy Day, which shows an area of the river with rocky ledges, probably near Sylvester’s Rocks or Pinch Rock, along Route 14 just outside of South Royalton.

273209_01In the summer these rocks are a jumping-off place for swimmers and a launching pad for tubing — and for stretching out in the sun to warm up after a dip in the always-cold water.  This area has now been conserved, through an innovative program of the White River Partnership and the generosity of a local landowner, Peg Elmer. A crew from the Vermont Youth Conservation Corps recently set stone steps into the river bank so that the sprawling ledges are easily accessible to everyone. You can read all about the wonderful community project in our local paper, the Randolph Herald.

Sylvester's Rocks 048Thanks to the new steps, I was able to climb down to the river without worrying about my aging knees or how to keep my balance carrying  camera, book, and backpack. Standing on the ledge in the river, I took the shot looking back toward Route 14 and the steps in the river bank. The electrical wires crossing the scene are an unfortunate intrusion, evidencing Hopper’s good judgment in leaving such lines out of his paintings. His wireless poles give a nod to reality but don’t interfere with the picture.

Sylvester's Rocks 019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


We’ve had very little rain this month, and so the water’s low in the White River and the rocks are fully exposed. If this is the place in Hopper’s painting, the water level was much higher when he was here. I shot lots of photos, trying to capture Hopper’s perspective and puzzling over whether this was indeed where he painted Windy Day.  That goal became secondary, however, as I reveled in the gorgeous fall colors. The autumn hues were just beginning to appear when Hopper made his paintings, so his palette is much cooler than mine.

Sylvester's Rocks 023Sylvester's Rocks 026

The next day I explored another area of the river where there are more rock ledges, along the edge of the  Vermont Law School campus and below the Chelsea Street bridge, which leads into downtown South Royalton. This is the area where the First Branch enters the White River. The Hopper watercolor that’s reproduced on the cover of my book shows the First Branch just a bit to the north. Looking at the profile of the mountains to the southeast, toward Sharon, I realized that this may actually have been the place where Hopper stood on a windy day in 1938, painting the White River.  I’ll just have to keep looking — and taking more pictures.

White River, Autumn, 2013 012

 

 

 

Autumn in Vermont: Hopper Was Here

From the window of the upstairs guest room — my writing place — in our hillside home in South Royalton, Vermont, I look out over our field and trees to the rolling hills on the horizon.  The view constantly changes, light and shadows flowing  with the movement of sun and clouds across the sky as the day progresses from twilight to dusk. 

From the window of the upstairs guest room on Wagon Wheels Farm, Edward and Jo Hopper looked out over another South Royalton hill — Jigger Hill, or “Bob Slater’s Hill,” as Edward dubbed it.  He recorded his fascination with the changing light and shadows in a watercolor, a striking study of contrasting views, near and far.

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Edward Hopper, Bob Slater’s Hill, 1938. Watercolor on paper, 13-1/2 x 19-1/2″. Huntington Museum of Art, West Virginia. Gift of Ruth Woods Dayton, 11967.1.132.

 

 

Artist Philip Koch wrote a wonderful blog piece about this painting. I’m convinced that Philip is able to channel Hopper, and so I urge you to read his insightful observations; click here and scroll down to “Hopper the Activist.”   (Also take this opportunity to look at Philip’s own extraordinary work, Hopper-related and otherwise.)

In Bob Slater’s Hill and others of the Vermont watercolors, Hopper captured the particular shade of yellowish-green that’s a harbinger of fall in Vermont. It’s a fleeting hue, and I’ve not yet been able to get it with my camera, despite many autumn treks to Hopper’s viewpoint. I’m always a bit too early (the hillside’s still green) or a bit too late (the hue is moving toward full-fledged-fall color).  My latest attempt is close, though. This was taken on September 23, just about 75 years to the day since Hopper last gazed upon Bob Slater’s hill.

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Jigger Hill, South Royalton, Vermont. Photo by
Bonnie Tocher Clause, September 2013.

 

 

 

 Vermont & New Hampshire, Sept 2013 010

 

This time of year the nights are cool and frosty.  When we wake up we’re inside a cloud, but the fog burns off by midday, and then it’s warm enough to bask in the sun on the deck.  The skies have been a deep, bright blue, a Maxfield-Parrish-like backdrop for the colors of the changing leaves, which have now almost reached their zenith of brilliance.

 

 

At the end of the day, as the sun dips low on the horizon and the shadows lengthen, the colors intensify — a last hurrah before darkness sets in.  I can’t stop looking — and, apparently, neither could Mr. Hopper.

Vermont & New Hampshire, Sept 2013 105View from Ducker Road, looking south toward Rte 110, South Royalton, Vermont.
The curving road mimics the bend in the First Branch of the White River,
hidden by the trees. Photo by Bonnie Tocher Clause, September 2013.